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مواضيع بلغات عالمية/ Environmental Management System

علي اسماعيل الجاف
علي اسماعيل الجاف
  علي اسماعيل الجاف  


Environmental Management System

 
A Scientific, Analytic & Descriptive Study in the Environmental Condition of the Hospitals' Medical Wastes to Avoid Pollution
(A Cross-Sectional Study)
 بحث تقدم به الباحث الاستاذ علي اسماعيل الجاف 
نظام ادارة النفايات الطبية: دراسة علمية ، تحليلية ووصفية في حالة البيئة للنفيات الطبية للمستشفيات لتجنب التلوث 
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Overview
 
The concept of health is defined as: "the state which shows the human in a perfect condition in terms of body, brain, and society.  It does not mean the absence of illness (disease) or disability of the normal person who could find the balanced relation between his body and the environmental conditions that surrounds him." (1)
 
The aim of this research is to determine the sources of pollution in healthy institutes due to their activities in presenting the medical services to stop the prevalence of epidemic and treating diseases inside and outside the healthy institutes because of draining these pollutants.
 
Also, this research tries to increase the awareness of the workers, who work in the field of environmental management, in dealing with all the pollutants throughout the environment from one side, and from the other to make availability of the most advanced tools and devices to achieve the goal of making healthy society and institutes.
 
The environment is regarded as most important element in the healthy programme in any society which plays an essential role in reducing the prevalence of disease. (2)  So, the concept of health, environment and development takes such a paramount and essential position in the environmental programmes.   They guarantee the health of institutes and make them healthy and highly developed.
 
The Aims of the Environmental Protection
 
The impact of human activities on the environment does not limit to deform its types of destruction and harmlessness.  So, the concept of environment protection does not stop at returning the beauty, it tries to avoid the impact of all the pollution factors that affect the health and life of the human in the first step if they are not stopped or treated well.  The future of the society will be gloomy. (3)
 
- The Preventive Procedure:  it includes preventing all types of damage that occurs or might occur.
- The Therapeutic (Curative) Procedure: it includes the management of pollution and the way of reducing the impact that is resulting from it to reach at removing their effects.
 
The goal of preventing pollution occurrence is as preventive methods to protect the environment by the human activity, the service or industrial activity or the institutional activities.  So, we need at this point to make Environmental Impacts Assessment (EIA).  This will help to avoid waste in money and efforts; so that there could not be any damages on the healthy and environmental sides.
 
Facts of Environmental Management System
 
To protect the environment from the risks of pollution means to guarantee the continuity of Life.(4)  So, the best mean to achieve that goal is throughout implementing an active system for the environmental management.
Iraq does not work with international organization like the International Standardization Organization (ISO) to get the measurements of features of (EMS) to work on them.  If we shall not follow these features (characteristics) of (ISO), we are not able to reach the environmental protection goals.  ISO and EIA present the environmental policy to any institute or directorate that guarantee the prevention of pollution occurrence.  This policy should include a clear future insight to the goals.  Also, ISO calls for making the environmental planning and implementation to reach the final goals of the environmental policy that means the practical steps.  After that, ISO needs checking and corrective action for assessment and evaluation and management review for all the practical practice of the preventive process of pollution.
 
Abstract
 
Background: Iraq is facing such a dangerous and risky conditions in the next years due to there is no real and logical treatment for Medical Wastes and Cabbages that cause hazardous diseases and transferring uncured infections. Landfilling is the oldest method that we follow and use in terms of gathering, isolation, separation, transferring and storage for Medical Wastes.  Also, education is not taken its path in the real sense and we don't have special factories to recycle Medical Wastes.  Iraq is not following EIA and ISO international Organizations.  The drainage system needs to be cared for.  There is one bag for each coach in a hospital and weight of medical Wastes is huge in tons.
Materials and Methods: The study is a cross-sectional study in which the researcher presents a descriptive, analytical and comparative study for the data of the Medical Wastes from the Technical Dept. in Wasit Health Directorate.  There is a comparison between two years in which results reflect the huge and enormous weight ratios and numbers of wastes and cabbages bags that are representing one of the essential and paramount elements and factors to cause pollution due to most pollutants are found in the wastes.  The study is for the years of (2010-2011) based on accurate and precise gathering and analysis.  The method and approach in this study is to show the absolute risk, relative risk, historical overview of other countries concerning EIA, observation and timing.  The Aims: the research tries to determine the main sources of pollution in our hospitals and the necessary requirements that must be done to avoid and prevent pollutions in health institutes.  EIA is one of the keys to solve the current problem of pollution.   Variables as they exist at one particular time.
Results & Discussions: The ratio of bags usage is so high and there is misuse by the workers.  No real understanding for Medical Wastes treatment and separation in terms of huge rates of weight in Kg. especially in 2010 in hospital of (400) bed capacity.  Most of the crematories are broken down in 2010 that causes long period gathering and remaining in the hospitals until they are sent to landfilling. In 2011 the rate of weight in Kg. reaches (14360) in December which represent the total number of medical wastes for one month to eight hospitals.  The lowest rate of weight reaches (14360).
Concerning the total number of the medical wastes bags in 2011, we have found that the ratio is very high in the last three months of the year: October (12586), November (12420), and December (14360).
We have highest ratios in the medical wastes in 2010, especially in the months of January reached (10.49) and February reached (11.17).  Where as, the highest ratios in 2011 are in the months of October (19.64), November (19.38) and December (22.41).  It is significant and indicative due to the unplanned methods of gathering, separation, isolation and transferring. There is no clear system of EIA.  Conclusions & Recommendations: There is no real treatment for medical wastes inside hospitals. There is no workable incinerators due to some are workable and others are broken down.  The drainage system is not working in most hospitals of Wasit health Directorate.  Workers are not trained well and they have no skills and knowledge of the instructions and restrictions of the (EIA) and (ISO).  The study infers that we, Wasit Health Directorate, must start to build good wastes stores according to the restrictions and proceedings of (CSR) and (EIA). 
The high ratios of medical wastes weight of hospitals in Wasit Health Directorate are because of that there is no systematic and real procedures that deal with the issue of environment and health. We need to open a small factory inside one of our teaching hospitals to take benefits from our wastes and cabbages. Training for workers and make availability of vehicles and stores are essential in each hospital.  Drainage system is workable in Al-Zahra and Al-Karama Teaching Hospitals.  They use biological and chemical treatment.
 
Keywords:
Environment, EIA, Pollution, System, Recycling, ISO, Workers, Education, Treatment, Types, Drainage, Crematory
Waste Pollutants


 

2013-04-22 - عدد القراءات #7880 - تعليق #0 - مواضيع بلغات عالمية

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