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دراسات وبحوث/بحث حول ادارة النفايات الطبية: دراسة علمية، اجصائية ووصفية للنفايات الطبية لمستشفيات ج1

علي اسماعيل الجاف
علي اسماعيل الجاف
  علي اسماعيل الجاف  

 

بحث حول ادارة النفايات الطبية: دراسة علمية، اجصائية ووصفية للنفايات الطبية لمستشفيات دائرة صحة لتجنب التلوث وهي دارسة مقارنة للاعوام 2010-2011

 

هذا البحث نادر جدا في العراق

 

الاستاذ الباحث

علي اسماعيل الجاف

 

Environmental Management System

 

A Scientific, Analytic & Descriptive Study in the Environmental Condition of the Hospitals' Medical Wastes to Avoid Pollution

(A Cross-Sectional Study)

 

Researcher // Ali Ismael Al-Jaf

Wasit Health Directorate

Training & Development Centre

Email Address: microinkut@yahoo.com

Telephone No. (07801776891)

 

Overview

 The concept of health is defined as: "the state which shows the human in a perfect condition in terms of body, brain, and society.  It does not mean the absence of illness (disease) or disability of the normal person who could find the balanced relation between his body and the environmental conditions that surrounds him." (1)

The aim of this research is to determine the sources of pollution in healthy institutes due to their activities in presenting the medical services to stop the prevalence of epidemic and treating diseases inside and outside the healthy institutes because of draining these pollutants.

 

Also, this research tries to increase the awareness of the workers, who work in the field of environmental management, in dealing with all the pollutants throughout the environment from one side, and from the other to make availability of the most advanced tools and devices to achieve the goal of making healthy society and institutes.

 The environment is regarded as most important element in the healthy programme in any society which plays an essential role in reducing the prevalence of disease. (2)  So, the concept of health, environment and development takes such a paramount and essential position in the environmental programmes.   They guarantee the health of institutes and make them healthy and highly developed.

 

The Aims of the Environmental Protection

The impact of human activities on the environment does not limit to deform its types of destruction and harmlessness.  So, the concept of environment protection does not stop at returning the beauty, it tries to avoid the impact of all the pollution factors that affect the health and life of the human in the first step if they are not stopped or treated well.  The future of the society will be gloomy. (3)

 

- The Preventive Procedure:  it includes preventing all types of damage that occurs or might occur.

- The Therapeutic (Curative) Procedure: it includes the management of pollution and the way of reducing the impact that is resulting from it to reach at removing their effects.

The goal of preventing pollution occurrence is as preventive methods to protect the environment by the human activity, the service or industrial activity or the institutional activities.  So, we need at this point to make Environmental Impacts Assessment (EIA).  This will help to avoid waste in money and efforts; so that there could not be any damages on the healthy and environmental sides.

 

Facts of Environmental Management System

 To protect the environment from the risks of pollution means to guarantee the continuity of Life. (4)  So, the best mean to achieve that goal is throughout implementing an active system for the environmental management.

 Iraq does not work with international organization like the International Standardization Organization (ISO) to get the measurements of features of (EMS) to work on them.  If we shall not follow these features (characteristics) of (ISO), we are not able to reach the environmental protection goals.  ISO and EIA present the environmental policy to any institute or directorate that guarantee the prevention of pollution occurrence.  This policy should include a clear future insight to the goals.  Also, ISO calls for making the environmental planning and implementation to reach the final goals of the environmental policy that means the practical steps.  After that, ISO needs checking and corrective action for assessment and evaluation and management review for all the practical practice of the preventive process of pollution.

 

Waste Pollutants

These are the number of pollutants that change the features of normal water.  This type of pollutants does not effect on the chemical feature of the water; but it effects on the physical feature only.  The smell, taste and colour of the water that is changed. 

 

The Chemical Pollutants

It is resulted from the change of the chemical features of the water, due to the occurrence of chemical radioactivity between the water and the polluted factors in it.  Then, the water becomes poisonous. (5)

 

The Germinal Pollutants

It is resulted from the existence of illness germs in the water.  This causes infectious diseases. 

 

The Solid Wastes

The solid wastes are regarded as the oldest types of wastes that the human produces since the Creation Time.  So, the maltreatment of the solid wastes causes the prevalence of epidemic diseases.  Also, it is recommended to follow the three procedures in the Wastes Treatment Process: gathering, transferring, and removal either by burial, burning or throwing in the river. (6)

 

The Damages of Bad Management of the Solid Wastes

1.      ) Increase insects' carriers,

2.      ) Increase rodents reproduction,

3.      ) Water pollution,

4.      ) Food pollution,

5.      ) Soil pollution,

6.      ) Underground water pollution,

7.      ) Air pollution.

 

Nutrients

The food (nutrients) could cause many diseases resulted from the poisonous materials because of its dissolution or the existence of the microbiology that causes the disease in the food or there might be parasites which are found in the food.  Also, the malnutrition or bad behavior of the storage of the food causes diseases or poisons.

 

Biological Pollution (7)

This type of pollution happens due to the existence of parasites, germs, and viruses in the food.  It is happened because of the bad storage of nutrients in such unhealthy ways in unhealthy places and these places are not cleaned and antisepticised (disinfected).

 

Solid Pollution

This is caused by the random and unorganized bury to the environmental wastes.  These soils will be polluted and could not be used for agricultural or living by the human beings.

 

Types of the Environmental Pollutants in the Health Institutes

The medical wastes are regarded as the most hazardous and dangerous sources for the environment and health.  The wastes of health institutes are production resulted from providing the daily healthy services and include tools, devices, blood, body parts, chemical materials, drug cosmetics, medical devices, and radiation materials.  The maltreatment of these wastes means that the workers and the society will encounter (exposure) to the infection of the contagious diseases.  Besides, it causes the damage of the environment. (8)

 

Strategic Principles to the Programme of the Medical Wastes Management

1.      ) Preventive support to the health institutes and make all the necessary requirements and preparations to deal with wastes in all its steps in such scientific methods.

2.      ) Working on medical wastes management and removing them to avoid their effects on the health and environment.

3.      ) Adopting methods that could make continuous coordination among the official institutes to remove the medical wastes.

4.      ) Developing human resources abilities and capacities especially in the technical information and practices to enrich their minds with useful and practical knowledge.

5.      ) Putting measurements and standardizations for the production processes of separation, transferring, and treating for the medical wastes.

6.      ) Working on choosing highly-qualified treating technicians that don't have negative effect on the health and environment. (9)

 

Medical Wastes Sources in Iraq

1.      ) Hospitals,

2.      ) College Hospitals,

3.      ) Public Hospitals,

4.      ) Local Hospitals,

5.      ) Private Hospitals,

6.      ) Primary Health Centres,

7.      ) Medical Emergency Centres,

8.      ) Pharmacies,

9.      ) Maternal and Midwives Clinics and Centres,

10.  ) Outpatients Clinics,

11.  ) Renal Failure Centres,

12.  ) First Aids Centres,

13.  ) Blood Transfusion Centres,

14.  ) Military Medical Centres,

15.  ) Laboratories and Researches Centres,

16.  ) Laboratories and Biological Centres,

17.  ) Medical Research Centres,

18.  ) Anatomization and Mortal Storage Centres,

19.  ) Biological and Technical Institutes,

20.  ) Doctors Clinics,

21.  ) Pharmaceutical Stores.

 

Medical Wastes Types

-          Normal Medical Wastes: these are not hazardous on the workers.  They represent (75 – 90 %) of the wastes' ratio.  They could be papers, cabbages, food remains, … etc.

-          Dangerous Medical Wastes: these present (10 – 25 %) of the wastes' ratio that are produced and resulted from the hospitals.  They cause healthy risks which include contagious diseases, poisonous genes, and radiation and sharp materials.

-           Contagious Wastes: they cause contagious diseases like viruses, bacteria, parasites, and mycosis.  They resulted from cultures and the materials that are used in the dissolution of diseases in the laboratory.  Also, they come from the wastes of isolated patients in the Contagious Diseases Unit.  Besides, the wastes of the used materials in cleaning and treating the patients. (10)

-          Pathological Wastes: these wastes related to the body of the patients or the amputated parts.

-          Acute Wastes: these are the tools that are used to cut or prick in the human body like injectors (syringes), lancets (scalpels) which are used in the surgical operations.

-          Chemical Wastes: these are the gas, liquid, and solid wastes that are resulted from the experimental, treating, and diagnostic activities or from the cleaning and disinfecting works that are accomplished inside the institute.  They are hazardous, dangerous, poisonous, quick burning, and quick radiation.

-          Drugs Wastes: these are the primary materials, drugs, and cosmetics that are expired or are not suitable to the usage because of their features.  These are not used for a long period of time and regarded as pharmaceutical industrial remains. (11)

 

Health Directorate Managers must do the Following:

1.      ) Prepare workers to be responsible on medical wastes management.

2.      ) Ensure workers' training methods in dealing with medical wastes.

3.      ) Availability of protection tools and materials that are necessary for personal protection.

4.      ) Availability of different bag types and ensuring and guaranteeing the best way of using them.

 

Medical Wastes Separation (12)

-          Putting the contagious medical wastes in yellow plastic containers or bags in condition that they are strong, combustible, and infiltrated.

-          Putting undamaged medical wastes in black plastic bags.

-          Putting infectious medical wastes in yellow plastic bags or container.

-          Putting chemical cure wastes in blue plastic bags.

-          Putting radiation wastes in lead containers

 

Medical Wastes Removal

-          Wearing strong and sturdy cloves.

-          Pouring wastes in the drainers.

-          Pouring water in such a good and continuous way to guarantee the removal of effects.

-          Removing the pollution and contamination on the cloves after careful washing of hands. (13)

 

Medical Wastes Transferring and Gathering

           Gathering the medical wastes in one place or site.

-          Tight closing for bags when they are filled.

-          Putting identification cards and sticking them on the bag or container.

-          Gathering the medical wastes by wagons

or containers, and that is called internal transferring by special carriages.

-          Weighing the bags and the weight should not exceed (12 Km). (14)

-          Specifying vehicles for transferring medical wastes outside the healthy institute.

-          Cleaning the transferring vehicles by water and disinfections.

 

Good Wastes Storage

The medical wastes should be stored in the Central Storage Room (CSR).  The procedures of storage in CSR are as follow:

1.      ) The place must be separated from other departments and sections in the hospitals.

2.      ) The ground floor must be constructed from solid material that could be easily cleaned and disinfected.

3.      ) The height of walls must not be exceeding (1, 5 M). (15)

4.      ) Good sources of water, lights, and ventilation CSR.

5.      ) Easiness to the entrance of workers and vehicles.

6.      ) Protection from sunlight and paying attention to climate changes and atmosphere.

7.      ) Killing insects and avoiding animals or birds to be close to CSR.

8.      ) Availability of antiseptics.

9.      ) Storage time in CSR must no exceed on (48 hr) in winter and (24 hr) in summer. (16)

10.  ) There must be clear marks.

11.  )  Preferable to arrange bags or containers.

12.  ) Cleaning storage containers.

13.  ) Putting cautious (alarming) marks.

 

Medical Wastes Treatment Ways (17)

 

Double Chamber Incinerators

-          Contagious,

-          Acute,

-          Anatomies,

-          Chemical cure or treatment.

 

Burning

 

Chemical Disinfection

-          Acute,

-          Amputation,

-          Remains.

 

Thermal Treatment

-          Contagious,

-          Acute,

-          Amputation.

 

Microwave Irradiation

-          Contagious,

-          Acute.

 

Encapsulation

-          Chemical,

-          Medicinal,

-          Acute.

 

Inertization

-          Medicinal,

-          Ashes.

 

 

2012-10-26 - عدد القراءات #8236 - تعليق #0 - دراسات وبحوث

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